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This investigation is stimulated by the search for dark matter.The existence of dark matter has been proposed to explain the observation of strange gravitational phenomena in space.This page investigates the hypothesis that instead of dark matter the universe contains a significant amount of antigravity matter.According to this hypothesis it is the antigravity matter that has caused these strange gravity-like fields.

 

The reader is advised to read the Behaviour page for an introductory explanation of some of the concepts discussed here.

 

Hypothesis

The hypothetical antigravity matter has the following characteristics:-

         Antigravity matter is made of particles.

         Particles of antigravity matter have positive mass and inertia.

         Particles of antigravity matter are repelled from other particles of antigravity matter by a force which is similar in strength and behaviour to the opposite of gravity.

         Particles of antigravity matter are repelled from normal matter objects by a force which is similar in strength and behaviour to the opposite of gravity.Normal matter particles and antigravity matter particles rarely interact apart from via antigravity.

         Light is deflected away from antigravity matter in a way that is similar to the opposite of gravity.Light does not otherwise interact with antigravity matter.

         Antigravity matter has existed for a large part of the life of the universe.

 

Initial Deductions

The following deductions are made assuming the hypothesis above is true:-

         Antigravity matter has spread out throughout interstellar and intergalactic space to form a thin atmosphere.There is little or no antigravity matter near the sun or any other star because of the repulsion between antigravity matter and normal matter.

         The deep space antigravity matter atmosphere behaves like a conventional theoretical ideal gas and has the bulk properties of density, temperature and pressure.These affect its behaviour in addition to the effect of antigravity.Because of the expansion of the universe the deep space antigravity matter atmosphere has a low but non-zero temperature.

         In a gravity field free normal matter particles move in the opposite direction to free antigravity matter particles.However in an antigravity field normal matter particles and antigravity matter particles move in the same direction.Therefore antigravity is not exactly the opposite of gravity.

 

Symbols

In the calculations and discussion below and referenced from this page the following symbols are used.

 

Symbol

Meaning

Gnn

Gravitational constant for normal matter to normal matter attraction.  This is the same as conventional G.

Gna

Gravitational constant for normal matter to antigravity matter repulsion.

Gaa

Gravitational constant for antigravity matter to antigravity matter repulsion.

Dab

Background deep-space density of antigravity matter.  That is, the density of antigravity matter in space outside the phenomenon being investigated.

Dnx

 

AGM Exclusion Density Ė the density of the normal matter in a normal matter object that will completely exclude antigravity matter from its volume.  This is also the mass of the normal matter object divided by the volume within its AGM Boundary.

Pab

Background pressure of antigravity matter.  That is, the pressure of antigravity matter in space away from the influence of normal matter.

G/P Limit

The scale above which antigravity matter is most affected by antigravity and below which it is most affected by AGM Pressure.See below for explation.

Picture1††

Maths with no AGM Pressure

Initially we carry out a mathematical analysis based on simplifying the assumption that antigravity matter is cold and AGM Pressure is so low that it can be ignored.  This is developed in Basic Maths.  One conclusion from that page is that if the pressure of antigravity matter is negligible the AGM Exclusion Density should be independent of the mass of the normal matter object.

 

An intellectual exercise to try to help to visualise antigravity matter is described in AGM Container.

 

Initial Analysis of the AGM Exclusion Density

According to the AGM Theory several types of normal matter objects should be at or close to the AGM Exclusion Density.This is described in Behaviour.  An initial rough collection of the densities from common sources is plotted on the right.

 

The density of these objects is obviously not independent of radius.The densities appear to decrease with increasing radius.  That is what might be expected if AGM Pressure was involved.  However the maths developed in Basic Maths is not valid for cases where AGM Pressure is non-zero.  We therefore take an alternative analysis approach in the following sections by using a simulation.

 

Introduction to an AGM Pressure Simulation

A simulation of antigravity matter under the influence of AGM Pressure has been produced.  A sample result is shown on the right.  The simulation is described in Introduction to AGM Pressure Simulation along with some example results. 

 

Some initial conclusions from the AGM Pressure Simulation are:-

  • AGM Pressure will compress a normal matter objectís AGM Boundary. 
  • The density of antigravity matter changes more smoothly at the boundary than without AGM Pressure. 
  • The AGM Boundary and AGM Exclusion Density concepts are still relevant. 
  • A normal matter objectís AGM Exclusion Density (given by its mass divided by the volume within its AGM Boundary) can be much higher if the antigravity matter around it has AGM Pressure.

 

Bok Globules

The graph on the right is developed in Analysis of Bok Globules and also in the draft paper Antigravity Matter and Bok Globules.

 

The black points represent 11 Bok Globules.  The red line is the Dnx Line as predicted by the AGM Pressure Simulation.  That is, it shows the relationship between the AGM Exclusion Density and the radius of the AGM Boundary as the mass of the central normal matter object varies while keeping Gnn, Gna, Gaa, Dab, and Pab constant. 

 

The position of the Dnx Line has been adjusted to fit the Bok Globule points by choosing suitable values for Gna, Gaa, Dab and Pab.The position of the line can be varied but the gradient cannot.

 

 

 

The gradient of the red Dnx Line from the simulation appears to fit the gradient of the Bok Globule data.  However this gradient is different from the trend in the Initial Analysis of the AGM Exclusion Density above.The equation of the red line is:-

 

Radius = 2.1 ◊107 ◊ Density-0.501

 

Where radius is in meters and density is in kg/cu m.

 

Picture1Further Exploration of the AGM Exclusion Density

In the section above we chose a set of simulation parameters that allowed the AGM Pressure Simulation to produce a Dnx Line that matches the data from the 11 Bok Globules. In this section we investigate how the AGM Exclusion Density varies as the normal matter mass increases further.  This leads to the graph on the right.

  • The solid red Dnx Line is the variation of the AGM Exclusion Density using the same parameters and defining the AGM Boundary as being at point R1 as described in AGM Pressure Simulation above.  
  • The solid green line is the same but with a much higher value for Gaa
  • The two dotted lines give the AGM Exclusion Density predicted with the same simulation parameters if the AGM Boundary is defined as point R2 as described in AGM Pressure Simulation above. 
  • The two dashed lines are the AGM Exclusion Densities that would be expected in each case if AGM Pressure was zero using the equations from the Basic Maths page linked above.

 

It can be seen that the antigravity matter has two behaviours.  At small scale the antigravity matter particles are pushed apart mostly by AGM Pressure and antigravity is irrelevant between antigravity matter particles.  This leads to the sloping Dnx Lines.  At larger scale the antigravity matter particles are pushed apart mostly by antigravity and AGM Pressure is irrelevant.  This leads to the vertical Dnx lines and AGM Exclusion Density independent of radius.  The scale at which the two behaviours meet is referred to as the ďG/P limitĒ.

 

Therefore at small scale the antigravity between antigravity matter particles can be ignored and Gaa can be assumed to be zero.This means that a mathematical analysis of the effects of AGM Pressure becomes much easier.This is set out in Maths with AGM Pressure.This confirms that the gradient of the lower part of the Dnx line should be -0.5 on a log/log graph.

 

From the Bok globule data and the Maths with AGM Pressure in the page linked above we can estimate that:-

 

= 2.1 ◊107 (kg/m)0.5

 

Assuming that antigravity matter behaves as a monatomic ideal gas and

 

= 1.3 ◊10-15 m/kg

 

If the red Dnx line is extrapolated to smaller scale an estimate can be made of the radius of the Sunís AGM Boundary if it were not affected by antigravity matter wind.That radius is about 1.1 ◊ 1015 m which is about 0.11 lightyears.This gives an AGM Exclusion density for objects of that mass of about 3.9 ◊ 10-16 kg m-3.

 

Picture3Globular Clusters

An analysis of the Milky Wayís globular clusters is described in Analysis of Globular Clusters.The conclusion from that analysis is that the distribution of globular clusters on the graph on the right is consistent with them orbiting within antigravity matter.  Their increased density is caused by the antigravity matter wind caused by their own movement.

 

Further results are set out in Analysis of Globular Cluster Colour.This identifies unexplained patterns in the relationship between globular cluster radius and colour.This may not be caused by antigravity matter, but is referenced in the analysis of elliptical galaxies.

 

Elliptical Galaxies

Elliptical galaxies have been found to have a ratio of normal matter to apparent dark matter of approximately 0.8. (source).

 

Therefore from Basic Maths 8) we estimate that:-

 

= 0.8

 

Further analysis is described in Analysis of Elliptical Galaxies.Once a plausible correction is applied to the data elliptical galaxies can be made to behave as predicted and have approximately the same density. (This is not presented as evidence for the existence of antigravity mater but is at least not evidence against antigravity matter)The vertical red dashed line in the graph on the right shows an estimate of the lowest reasonable value for large scale AGM Exclusion Density, Dnx.However the actual large scale Dnx could be much higher than that if the AGM Boundary of a typical elliptical galaxy is deep inside the galaxy.From this and the Basic Maths we estimate that:-

 

Large scale AGM Exclusion Density = Dab ◊ Gaa/Gna > 1.4 ◊10-21 kg/cu m.

 

Antigravity Matter in the Milky Way

We assume that the local interstellar cloud is drifting along with the antigravity matter in interstellar space near the Sun.That is, it has low velocity relative to the antigravity matter (as explained in Behaviour).The local interstellar cloud is approaching the Sun from the direction of the galaxy centre Sun (source).†† Therefore the antigravity matter is orbiting the Milky Way at approximately the same circumferential speed as the Sun, about 220 ◊103 ms-1 (source), and moving radially outwards at a speed of about 25 ◊103 ms-1 relative the the Sun (source). This complies with the description of antigravity matter within a spiral galaxy in Behaviour.

 

Consider a particle of antigravity matter on that trajectory in the vicinity of the Sun but away from the influence of the Sunís gravity.Its centripetal acceleration is provided by an antigravity matter mass reduction of M inside its orbit.

The particlesís centripetal acceleration = .

 

The Sun is moving in a circular orbit around the Milky Way.Its centripetal acceleration is mostly provided by the same antigravity matter mass reduction of mass M.

The Sunís centripetal acceleration = .

 

But we know that the Sun is in a circular orbit and the antigravity matter is on a spiral orbit moving outwards (as explained in Behaviour).Both are moving circumferentially at the same speed.Therefore the antigravity matter particleís centripetal acceleration must be less than or equal to the Sunís centripetal aceleration.Therefore

 

 

And

 

Gaa Gna

 

Andtherefore using the equation from Elliptical Galaxies section above

 

Gna 0.8 Gnn

 

Abell1689Abell 1689

The graph on the right is created in Analysis of Abell 1689.  This shows the density of antigravity matter within and around the cluster against radius.  This shape is consistent with an antigravity matter vortex.That analysis also concludes that:-

 

> 1.2 ◊ 10-20 kgm-3

Picture6The Coma Cluster

The graph on the right is created in Analysis of the Coma Cluster.  This shows the variation in antigravity matter density around the cluster.The Coma Cluster has a much weaker vortex than Abell 1689.  

 

An Upper Limit Estimate of the Background Density of Antigravity Matter

In the Behaviour page it is explained that a rotating spiral galaxy will cause the antigravity matter to orbit the galaxy.The antigravity matter flows out of the galaxy to be replaced by more.Antigravity matter is being continuously accelerated by the rotating galaxy disc.If the density of antigravity were too high this the disc would lose energy very quickly and spiral galaxies would be rare.However if the density of antigravity matter were too low there would be no drag and the effect would not occur.

 

By considering the distance to the nearest stars we estimate the average density of the local stars to be about 7.0 ◊ 10-21 kg m-3. We take that as the average density of the galaxy disc.We then take that as an upper limit on the density of antigravity matter.Therefore

 

Dab < 7.0 ◊ 10-21 kg m-3

 

Calculation

This investigation has developed the following estimates:-

 

1)      = 1.3 ◊10-15 mkg-1 (from Further Exploration of the AGM Exclusion Density above)

 

2)      = 0.8 (from Elliptical Galaxies above)

 

3)      Dnx = Dab ◊ Gaa/Gna > 1.4 ◊10-21 kgm-3. (from Elliptical Galaxies above)

 

4)      Gaa Gna (from Antigravity Matter in the Milky Way above)

 

5)      Gna 0.8 Gnn (from Antigravity Matter in the Milky Way above)

 

6)      > 1.2 ◊ 10-20 kgm-3(from in Analysis of Abell 1689)

 

7)      Dab < 7.0 ◊ 10-21 kg m-3 (from An Estimate of the Background Density of Antigravity Matter above)

 

3) and 4) give

 

Dab > 1.4 ◊10-21 kgm-3.

 

5) and 6) give

 

Dab > 1.5 ◊10-20 kgm-3.

 

This latter is a surprisingly high value for Dab and conflicts with 7).7) is only based on a rough estimate so the conflict is not too serious but it does suggest that Gna and Gaa are both close in value to Gnn to at least minimise the conflict.

 

Guesses

We now make the following guesses:-

         The density reduction in Abell 1689 is only 50% of the background density.This is because we consider it would be unlikely that vortices would clear all antigravity matter out of a volume of space.

         Gna = Gaa = 0.8 6.67 ◊ 10-11 = 5.3 ◊ 10-11 kg m-3 as suggested in the Calculation section above.

 

Based on these guesses

 

Dab = 2 ◊ 1.2 ◊ 10-20 / 0.8 = 3 ◊10-20 kgm-3.

 

Pab = 1.2 ◊ 10-15 kgm-1s-2.

 

The large scale AGM Exclusion Density = Dnx = 3 ◊10-20 kgm-3.

 

Gravitational Effect in the Solar System

Antigravity matter should cause the Sunís gravity to appear to be increased but this has not been detected.In this source the error on the known mass of the Sun is +/- 0.000126 of the mass of the Sun.This value has been measured though its various gravitational effects.Therefore the effect of the antigravity matter must less that this.

 

Using the figures above in Guesses at a radius of 130 AU (which is approximately the distance of Voyager 1 from the Sun) the antigravity matter will increase the Sunís apparent gravity by a factor of (1 + 3.7 ◊ 10-10).Closer in the effect will be even less.

 

Consider the possibility that antigravity matter particles are related to Neutrinos

Neutrinos have previously been discounted as dark matter candidates because they would clump together under gravity.If they are antigravity matter this does not apply.The mass and tempterature of neutrinos have been estimated through cosmological arguments.However these arguments assume that they have gravity.Again if they are antigravity matter this does not apply.

 

It has been estimated that the average density of neutrinos in the universe is 336 per cubic centimetre (source).Most of these are relics from the beginning of the universe..

 

If we assume that:-

         Neutrinos are, or have somehow become antigravity matter particles

         Antigravity matter acts as an ideal gas and follows Boltzmannís law PV = nRT.

 

Then for a unit volume

 

Temperature = Pab/(336 ◊ 106 ◊ Boltzmannís constant)

 

And therefore the temperature of antigravity matter is 0.25 degrees.

 

The mass of an antigravity matter particles can be estimated as Dab / (336 ◊ 106) = 8.9 ◊ 10-29 kg.Based on the figures in the Guesses section above this is about 5.5 % of the mass of a neutron.

 

The Sunís AGM Boundary

An estimate is made above of the radius of the Sunís AGM Boundary if it were not affected by antigravity matter wind.That radius is about 1.1 ◊ 1015 m which is about 0.11 lightyears.

 

However there is expected to be a local antigravity matter wind (as explained in Behaviour)and this will distort the Sunís AGM Boundary so that it has a point of closest approach to the Sun facing the antigravity matter wind and a tail stretching out in the opposite direction.One simplistic way to calculate the radius of closest approach is using the conventional escape velocity equation except that V is the velocity of the antigravity matter wind at a distance.

 

V = Where M is the mass of the Sun and R is the radius of closest approach.

 

This equation would calculate the closest approach if affected only by repulsion between an antigravity matter particle and the Sun.However we expect that AGM Pressure will have an additional effect slowing down the approaching antigravity matter.We therefore create a computer algorithm calculating approach velocity, density and pressure during the approach.We assume that the starting wind speed is 25 ◊103 ms-1 as estimated in the Antigravity Matter in the Milky Way section above.Taking the other figures from Guesses above leads to the result shown on the right.

 

Using this algorithm we conclude that a closest approach of antigravity matter would be 3 ◊ 1011 m = 2 AU.This is a problem because it is difficult to see how it fits with other observations of the solar system.Resolutions of this could be:-

         Perhaps the approach velocity is much less.

         Perhaps antigravity matter is affected in some way by the solar wind or by the neutrinos emitted by the Sun.

 

 

© Copyright Tim E Simmons 2008 to 2016.Last updated 24th March 2016.Major changes are logged in AGM Change Log.