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Antigravity Matter Basics

1) The universe contains a thin atmosphere of antigravity matter (grey on the right). Particles of antigravity matter have positive mass (clarification) but are repelled from themselves and from normal matter (that is stars, planets, us, etc).  They rarely interact with normal matter or electromagnetic radiation except via antigravity.  Most antigravity matter particles are spread out thinly and fairly evenly throughout interstellar and intergalactic space.  The expansion of the universe has left them with low velocity relative to their neighbours.

 

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2) Normal matter objects (purple on the right) repel antigravity matter and cause a hole (white on the right).  The edge of the hole is the object’s AGM Boundary.  In some circumstances there can be almost a step change in density of antigravity matter at the AGM Boundary. The sun’s AGM Boundary is at an average radius of about 0.11 lightyears.  The AGM Exclusion Density is the average density of normal matter in a region of space that will completely exclude antigravity matter from within that region.  A first example of this density is given by the mass of a star divided by the volume within its AGM Boundary.  (See the Antigravity Matter paper for justification)

 

3) Normal matter objects, antigravity matter particles and photons all feel a net attraction to any region of space which has a reduced density of antigravity matter (lighter grey on the right) due to an unbalanced lack of repulsion.  (See the Antigravity Matter paper for justification)

 

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4) The hole around a normal matter object therefore adds to its gravity.  However this effect is insignificant at close range.  For example the apparent gravity of the Sun is increased by a factor of about (1 + 3.7 × 10-10) at a radius of 130 AU, which is approximately the distance of Voyager 1 from the Sun.  Closer in to the Sun the effect is even weaker. (See the Antigravity Matter paper for justification)

 

5) The deep space antigravity matter atmosphere has the bulk properties of density, temperature and pressure.  It usually has a low but non-zero temperature because of the expansion of the universe.

 

6) Antigravity matter sometimes flows in vortices in the same way that air does in the earth’s atmosphere.  An antigravity matter vortex causes a reduction in density of antigravity matter near the centre.  This reduction in density generates a gravity field and a pressure gradient.  Each of these can dominate the vortex depending on the circumstances.  The gravity field attracts normal matter objects and photons as well as antigravity matter particles.

 

7) Antigravity matter causes drag to normal matter objects that are passing through it because they disturb it and pass kinetic energy to it.  AGM Drag can operate on small or large scales depending on the situation.  Normal matter gasses passing through regions of antigravity matter feel AGM Drag from rare particle level collisions.  Stars feel AGM Drag because their AGM Boundary is distorted by the antigravity matter wind.  The antigravity matter in front of them is closer and denser than the antigravity matter behind them.

 

Drag

The AGM Boundary

As described above in Antigravity Matter Basics 2) antigravity matter is repelled from a normal matter object and an AGM Boundary forms.  The normal matter can be in the form of many densely packed gravitationally bound objects such as stars in a globular cluster or elliptical galaxy.   A shared AGM Boundary forms around the centre of gravity.  The normal matter within the shared AGM Boundary is on average at the AGM Exclusion Density.  There is little antigravity matter within the shared AGM Boundary so moving objects do not feel AGM Drag.  They retain their kinetic energy and the group retains its size. 

 

Some of the objects may have enough energy to pass outwards through the shared AGM Boundary.  In that case they develop an AGM Boundary of their own.  As they push the antigravity matter out of the way they are affected by AGM Drag.  They often lose energy and fall back into the group.  As a result of AGM Drag the average density of the group tends to stabilise at about the AGM Exclusion Density. 

 

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The normal matter can be in the form of molecules of gas and particles of dust.  This is the case within a molecular cloud.  If the cloud is at the AGM Exclusion Density an AGM Boundary forms around the cloud.  This gives the cloud a clearly defined surface and a globular appearance.

 

If the cloud is below the AGM Exclusion Density the normal matter and antigravity matter are mixed.  That situation usually does not last long because AGM Drag reduces the energy of the normal matter particles until they become dense enough to expel the antigravity matter.  Once again the average density of the cloud tends to stabilise at about the AGM Exclusion Density. 

 

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The AGM Exclusion Density

Picture3The AGM Exclusion Density therefore drives many aspects of normal matter behaviour in the universe.  Set out in the Antigravity Matter paper is an attempt to quantify the AGM Exclusion Density and other parameters relating to antigravity matter.  A summary of the findings from that page is as follows:-

  • The deep space AGM Exclusion Density approximately follows the red lines in the graph on the right. 
  • Antigravity matter exhibits two behaviours as it influences normal matter phenomena. 
    • At small scale the behaviour of the antigravity matter particles is dominated by AGM Pressure.  The small scale AGM Exclusion Density varies with radius.  This is shown by the lower sloping part of the red line on the right.  Small scale phenomena like Bok globules are relatively dense and their average density reduces as their mass increases. 
    • At large scale behaviour of the antigravity matter particles is dominated by antigravity.  The large scale AGM Exclusion Density is independent of radius.  This is shown by the vertical dashed region of the red line on the right.  Larger elliptical galaxies appear to follow this rule.  The vertical red line is shown offset from the elliptical galaxies because their AGM Boundary is assumed to be within the measured radius of the galaxy.
  • The radius at which the small scale and large scale behaviours converge is referred to as the G/P Limit.
  • The effective AGM Pressure is increased if an object is travelling at high speed relative to the antigravity matter.  This may cause a higher AGM Exclusion Density.  For example globular clusters are AGM Pressure dominated even though many of them are larger than the G/P limit.  They are moving at high speed through the antigravity matter as they orbit the Milky Way galaxy.  They therefore feel an additional stagnation pressure (ram pressure) from the antigravity matter.  This pressure pushes their AGM Boundary inwards at the leading face and makes them denser.  For many of them the lower sloping part of the red line is moved upwards to the region of the blue dotted line by that increased AGM Pressure.  The globular clusters that are well away from the blue dotted line are either close to the plane of the Milky Way, or well away from the centre of the Milky Way.  This means that their speed relative to the antigravity matter is reduced as explained below. 

 

Antigravity Matter and a Rotating Galaxy

With reference to the diagram on the right:-

A - Deep space is filled with a thin atmosphere of antigravity matter (grey).

B - Normal matter objects (purple) in the galaxy disc are passing through antigravity matter as they orbit the galaxy. They experience drag and gradually fall inwards towards the core.  Drag sometimes causes them to group together and form spiral arms.  Spiral arms can be produced by two mechanisms involving antigravity matter.  Both of these are demonstrated in Galaxy Simulations.  Tidal spirals are produced when a group of stars is distorted by the gravitational influence of the antigravity matter vortex it creates when it orbits another object.  Drag spirals are produced by the mechanism described in Behaviour > Drag Spirals.

C - The density of normal matter in a typical dense inner core has reached the AGM Exclusion Density.  There is therefore very little antigravity matter within the inner core.  Normal matter objects in the inner core do not feel drag. They retain their kinetic energy and the inner core retains its bulging shape and its size. The inner core receives more kinetic energy as objects in the galaxy disc fall in, but loses kinetic energy and angular momentum as higher energy objects are ejected into the surrounding antigravity matter.  These ejected objects form a lower density fringe of stars in the outer core.  Most of these ejected objects lose energy to antigravity matter drag and eventually fall back into the inner core.

D - The orbiting disc also drives an antigravity matter vortex as described below in AGM Vortex.  The vortex causes a reduction in density of antigravity matter around the galaxy and outside the many AGM Boundaries.  The reduction in density of antigravity matter generates gravity.  The gravitational effect of the antigravity matter vortex is often so strong that it dominates the galaxy.  The antigravity matter density reduction caused by the vortex appears to give the galaxy a dark matter halo. However the antigravity matter displaced dynamically by the vortex piles up outside the galaxy.  There is a region of increased density antigravity matter around the galaxy.  Further away from the galaxy the density of antigravity matter falls back to the background density.

 

The diagram on the right gives an indication of how antigravity matter is distributed around a rotating galaxy.  Lighter locations correspond with a reduced density of antigravity matter.  The antigravity matter density reduction has several components:-

  • The inner core where antigravity matter has been completely excluded.
  • The outer core and the disc where antigravity matter is excluded from the regions inside individual stars’ or other objects’ AGM Boundaries.
  • The vortex region.  This usually extends well away from the plane of the disc and is shown as being approximately spherical in the diagram on the right.  Because of its greater volume the gravity of the vortex region often dominates the galaxy.  Outside the vortex the density of antigravity matter is raised above the background density as the antigravity matter displaced by the vortex piles up.  Outside this region the density falls back to the background density.

 

The Antigravity Matter Vortex

As described in Antigravity Matter Basics 3) above normal matter objects, antigravity matter particles and photons all feel a net gravitational attraction to any region of space which has a reduced density of antigravity matter.  One of the most significant causes of a reduction in density of antigravity matter is the antigravity matter vortex.  There are several different variations.

 

GalaxyAn antigravity matter vortex can be created by a rotating galaxy disc.  Flow of antigravity matter within the vortex is as shown in the diagram on the left.  Normal matter objects orbiting in the disc drive the antigravity matter to orbit as well.  This causes antigravity matter to be thrown outwards in the plane of the disc, and causes a reduction in the density of antigravity matter within the vortex. 

 

Antigravity matter is attracted towards the centre of the vortex because of that reduction in density.  The antigravity matter in the galaxy plane is given a centripetal acceleration so that it follows a spiral path outwards.  The antigravity matter in deep space away from the plane of the disc is attracted inwards. 

 

Normal matter objects are also attracted towards the centre because of the reduction in density of antigravity matter.  Normal matter objects orbiting the galaxy have to move much faster to maintain their radius.  The gravitational effect of the antigravity matter vortex is often so strong that it dominates the galaxy.

 

The antigravity matter that has been dynamically displaced by the vortex piles up around the outside of the galaxy.  This has little effect within the galaxy but for objects outside this region the gravitational effect of the vortex approximately cancels out to nothing.  Much of the antigravity matter in that region falls back towards the axis above and below the disc and back into the galaxy.  Its angular momentum causes the vortex to extend above and below the galaxy disc.

 

This type of vortex is not self-sustaining.  The energy of the vortex is being constantly transported into deep space.  As a result it has to be driven by the galaxy disc.  The orbits of the normal matter objects in the disc gradually decay until they eventually join the core of the galaxy.  A spiral galaxy eventually becomes an elliptical galaxy if no new stars are added to the disc. 

 

SideViewAntigravity matter causes the flatness of spiral galaxies by the following mechanisms:-

  • Stars produce molecular clouds and molecular clouds produce stars.  Molecular clouds are affected by antigravity matter drag more than stars.  As shown in the diagram on the right the galaxy’s antigravity matter vortex blows molecular clouds outwards in the plane of the galaxy.  They coalesce and collapse to form new stars in the outer reaches of the galaxy disc.  Antigravity matter drag cannot normally push the stars outwards, but it can cause the stars’ orbits to decay.  The stars gradually fall inwards again.  However despite this effect the net flow of matter is inwards and the disc eventually falls into the core.
  • Antigravity matter drag is reduced close to the galaxy plane for two reasons.  Drag is reduced because the antigravity matter is also orbiting, and drag is reduced when many stars are orbiting together because they follow in each other’s wake.
  • Most galaxy discs are created by amalgamation of existing galaxies.  The incoming galaxies orbit each other and lose kinetic energy to antigravity matter drag.  As they orbit they create an antigravity matter vortex and a gravity field.  They are disrupted by tidal forces and antigravity matter drag and initially they become the disc of the newly formed galaxy.  Their stars are delivered to the new galaxy in the plane of the new galaxy disc.

 

The shape of the vortex region is highly variable.  For example:-

  • When the galaxy is not moving quickly through the antigravity matter (so that there is little background antigravity matter wind) the density reduction can extend well away from the plane of the galaxy disc because:-
    • Antigravity matter close to the plane of the disc accelerates inwards faster than the antigravity matter that is away from the disc.
    • The antigravity matter expelled by the disc may cause a small general rotation of all the antigravity matter in the region of space around the galaxy.  As antigravity matter is sucked in towards the axis its rate of rotation increases.  The result is that the vortex extends outwards along the axis of rotation. 
  • When there is an antigravity matter wind blowing past the galaxy the shape of the vortex will be affected.  The result will be dependant on the dynamics of the galaxy and the direction of the wind.
  • When two galaxies are aligned and rotating in the same direction their vortices can extend outwards and connect.  This is shown in the diagram on the right.  Antigravity matter from the outer reaches of the two discs is sucked back into the vortex between the galaxies.  As it is pulled inwards its rate of rotation increases and its density reduces.  A line of reduced density antigravity matter then connects the two galaxy cores.  This generates gravity and can capture normal matter objects including stars.  They are sometimes apparent as strings of stars connected to a spiral galaxy’s core.  A connected vortex like this is likely to be a temporary feature that will eventually break as the galaxies orbit or move past each other.

 

ClusterBinarySpiralThe same vortex flow pattern can apply on a much larger scale to a galaxy cluster if it has some net rotation as shown on the left.  Even if the cluster does not have an overall net rotation it is likely to include many smaller vortices.  Antigravity matter is swept out of the centre of the cluster by the effect of the many vortices and/or by the chaotic movement of the galaxies within the cluster. 

 

As with a spiral galaxy the antigravity matter that has been dynamically displaced piles up around the cluster with a density greater than the background density.  An observer who assumed the gravity field was caused by dark matter might interpret this region of increased density of antigravity matter as being caused by negative mass dark matter.

 

The same flow pattern can also apply on a much smaller scale when stars in a binary pair are orbiting each other as shown on the right.  A binary system is much smaller than the G/P Limit so the behaviour of antigravity matter is dominated by AGM Pressure rather than by antigravity between particles.

 

TorroidalAntigravity matter can also flow in toroidal vortices.  This is a similar flow pattern to a smoke ring.  The circulation generates a ring of lower density antigravity matter.  Normal matter objects, antigravity matter particles and photons are all attracted to the ring by gravity.

 

This flow pattern is much more stable.  Just like smoke rings antigravity matter toroidal vortices can cross large distance without needing extra energy.

 

 

 

Animation2Supernova Remnants

The behaviour of supernova remnants is heavily influenced by antigravity matter.  Two pathways for the development of supernova remnants are described in the following links:-

Behaviour > Supernova Remnants – Ring

Behaviour > Supernova Remnants – Spherical

 

  

 

NGC4622LabelledQualitative Behaviour Analogous to a  Phase ChangeSupermanLabelled

The behaviour of groups of normal matter objects in deep space at the AGM Exclusion Density is analogous to the phase change between a liquid and a gas.  Normal matter objects that are at or above the AGM Exclusion density often looks like (but are not) globules of liquid.  Normal matter objects that are below the AGM Exclusion Density are usually more amorphous.  These two states of normal matter are referred to as the liquid-like AGM Excluded state, and the gas-like AGM Mixed state.

 

When a dense, AGM Excluded galaxy core or elliptical galaxy is captured by a new galaxy it breaks up unevenly.   This is analogous to water being thrown into dry air.  Initially the water separates into small droplets before eventually each droplet evaporates.  Globular clusters are analogous to the droplets.  They are fragments of an old, dense, AGM Excluded galaxy core or elliptical galaxy that has broken up.  They contain old stars from the old galaxy but they are relatively short lived within the new galaxy because they are torn apart by antigravity matter drag and tidal forces. 

 

EarlyAntigravity Matter in the Early Universe

This description starts with the situation after the universe had cooled to allow recombination of ionised hydrogen.  This is then time when the universe became transparent. We assume that antigravity matter and normal matter both existed and were fairly well mixed with only small variations in density.  According to the AGM theory the universe developed through the stages shown in the diagram on the right:-

 

At first gravity causes normal matter to move towards regions of higher density of normal matter and away from regions of higher density of antigravity matter.  Gravity also causes antigravity matter to move away from regions of high density of anything.  The result is that normal matter and antigravity matter separate.  Initially the scale of the separation is small.  That is, individual regions of normal matter and antigravity matter are small.  This is shown in panel 1 on the right.

 

The normal matter is still hot and gravity cannot collapse it further because of its pressure.  However gravity can still make regions of normal matter coalesce.  In time the regions of normal matter and antigravity matter become large.  This is shown in panel 2 on the right.  As the universe cools the normal matter regions shrink under gravity, and the antigravity matter regions grow.  As the universe continues to expand the antigravity matter regions inflate until they became vast bubbles.  This leaves the antigravity matter particles with little kinetic energy.  Normal matter is swept into the spaces between the antigravity matter bubbles and remains hot as it is compressed.  This is shown in panel 3.

 

Eventually the normal matter cools and aggregates under gravity to produce galaxies in clusters and formations of sheets and strings separated by vast spaces containing little or no observable matter.

 

  

© Copyright Tim E Simmons 2008 to 2018.  Last updated 8th April 2018.  Major changes are logged in AGM Change Log.