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Supernova Remnants – Ring




This page describes one possible sequence of events in the development of a supernova remnant after the initial explosion.  This page deals with the case where material is ejected from the explosion in a ring.  For a description of other cases see Behaviour > Supernova Remnant - SphericalLower down on this page are shown some example supernova remnants that demonstrate these stages of development.

                              (diagrams not to scale)



image001A typical star approaching the end of its life still consists of a large proportion of unburned hydrogen. 


Before the explosion antigravity matter is spread out fairly evenly throughout deep space but is repelled from the star by antigravity.  This leaves a hole in the antigravity matter around the star which may be several light years in diameter.


When the explosion occurs, a large proportion of the star’s mass is ejected into space.  A small dense core is left behind in the centre.  The core is destined to become anything from a brown dwarf to a black hole dependant on the mass of the original star. 


The page describes the development pathway if the ejected material is in the form of in a rapidly expanding ring.  It may be that this occurs when the original star was spinning rapidly.




image003 At first there may be little effect on the surrounding antigravity matter because straight after the explosion the total mass of star and ring are almost unchanged, and the antigravity matter is not affected by electromagnetic radiation.


As the ring moves outward it starts to affect the antigravity matter.  Antigravity matter is pushed outwards in front of the advancing ring, and falls inwards along the axis of the ring because of the reduction of mass in the centre.  The expanding ring also cools and starts to forms molecular clouds, dust and other debris.  Its density becomes progressively more uneven and lumpy under the influence of its own gravity.




image006The antigravity matter that is moving in along the axis meets in the centre.  A flat circular region of high density of antigravity matter develops temporarily in the plane of the ring.  If there had been an asymmetry in the initial conditions the core may be given a kick away from the centre due to repulsion from the antigravity matter. 


In this situation there is likely to be a correlation between the kick direction and the axis of the rings.  If the ring is caused by the spin of the original star then there is also likely to be a correlation between the kick direction and the core spin axis. 


The kick may occur many years after the original supernova event.  This kick is likely to be less extreme than the kick in the spherically symmetrical case because the region of dense antigravity matter is spread out in a disc.




image005 The diagram and the description below relate to the case where a kick has not occurred, perhaps because the AGM splash was symmetrical around the core.


The antigravity matter in the centre now splashes outwards again following the expanding ring of molecular clouds.  A strong antigravity matter wind begins to blow outwards on the material in the ring from the direction of the centre.  This sculpts the molecular clouds in the ring into fingers of denser material pointing towards the centre. The antigravity matter wind begins to develop into two oppositely rotating toroidal vortices.





image009The two antigravity matter toroidal vortices continue to develop.  The circulation of the antigravity matter within each vortex creates two rings of reduced density antigravity matter.  These generate gravity.  The ring of molecular clouds is shredded by the antigravity matter wind, split up, captured by gravity of the vortices, and rolled up into two tight rings within the vortices.  The vortices are strengthened by the capture of the molecular clouds.


The vortices eventually lose energy and slow down.  The molecular clouds are released, break up, and are carried away by the background antigravity matter wind to form new stars elsewhere.




Example Supernova Remnants


M57_The_Ring_Nebula.jpgStage R4

The Ring Nebula


NGC 6720

This is an end view of a Stage R4 supernova remnant.  The material shed by the star is in the ring.  An antigravity matter wind is blowing inwards along the axis of the ring (along the line of sight) and blowing outwards on the ring material from the direction of the centre. Fingers of denser material can be seen pointing into the centre.

ic4406_hst.jpgStage R4

IC 4406

This is a side view of a Stage R4 supernova remnant.  The fingers of denser material can be seen as a dark shapes in the brighter ring wall.

sn87a.gifStage 1, Stage R2 and Stage R5


This supernova appears to have exploded three times.  The most recent explosion was detected on earth in 1987.  The inner ring is the Stage R2 remnant of a previous explosion, and the two outer rings are the Stage R5 remnants of an even earlier explosion.  The Stage R5 rings appear to be slightly offset, indicating that the local antigravity matter wind has pushed them sideways.


 Copyright Tim E Simmons 2008 to 2016. Last updated 11th August 2016.  Major changes are logged in AGM Change Log.