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Supernova Remnants - Spherical




This page describes one possible sequence of events in the development of a supernova remnant after the initial explosion.  This page deals with the case where the explosion is approximately spherically symmetrical.  That is, material is blasted from the star in all directions to form a rapidly expanding shell.  For a description of other cases see Behaviour > Supernova Remnant - Ring An example supernova is shown below.

                               (diagrams not to scale)



image001A typical star approaching the end of its life still consists of a large proportion of unburned hydrogen.  Before the explosion antigravity matter is spread out fairly evenly throughout deep space but is repelled from the star by antigravity.  This leaves a hole in the antigravity matter around the star which may be several light years in diameter.


When the explosion occurs, a large proportion of the starís mass is ejected into space.  A small dense core is left behind in the centre.  The core is destined to become anything from a brown dwarf to a black hole dependant on the mass of the original star. 


This page describes the development pathway if the ejected material is in the form of in a rapidly expanding shell.  It may be that this occurs when the original star was not spinning rapidly.




image003A well know feature of gravity is that the gravity of a shell of matter acts as if all the mass was at the centre for objects outside the shell, and cancels out to zero for objects within the shell.  This is described for example here.


Until the expanding shell reaches the surrounding antigravity matter there may be little effect on the antigravity matter from the explosion.  This is because the total mass of core and shell is almost unchanged and their gravity acts as if it located at the centre, and the antigravity matter is not affected by electromagnetic radiation.As the shell expands it cools and starts to forms molecular clouds, dust and other debris.




image005When the shell reaches the antigravity matter it continues to expand.  For the antigravity matter outside the shell there is little change of gravity because the shellís total gravity continues to act as if all its mass is at the centre.  However for the antigravity matter inside the shell the gravity of the shell cancels out.  It therefore only feels the gravity of the central object.  This is insufficient to support the original AGM Boundary.  The antigravity matter inside the shell begins to fall inwards towards the core.


This process may be aided if the antigravity matter is heated by the original explosion.  This would increase its pressure and speed up the collapse of the AGM Boundary.


The expanding shell cools and develops density variations under the effect of its own gravity.  Regions of higher density interact with the local antigravity matter and the shell slows down due to antigravity matter drag.  The drag makes the shell even more unstable and it begins to break up into separate molecular clouds. 




image007The antigravity matter within the shell continues to accelerate towards the centre.  Yet more antigravity matter begins to fall inwards as the shell continues to expand.


Relatively suddenly a large amount of antigravity matter arrives at high speed at the centre and temporarily generates a region of high density.  The gravitational effect is quite extreme and highly variable depending on the exact arrangement of core and antigravity matter.  If there is a slight asymmetry the core and the antigravity matter are pushed apart violently.  This results in what is known as a pulsar kick.  The core is accelerated away at high speed. 


The kick may occur many years after the original supernova event.This kick is likely to be more extreme than the kick in the case where normal matter is ejected in a ring because the region of dense antigravity matter is concentrated in the centre.





image009A jet of dense antigravity matter is accelerated in the opposite direction to core.   This collides with the surrounding antigravity matter and creates a toroidal vortex.  The jet and the vortex push through the shell of supernova remnants.  Once the core and the antigravity matter have left the central region the surrounding antigravity matter falls inwards again bringing the rest of the supernova remnants back inwards.


Eventually the turbulence dies down and the molecular clouds are blown away by the background antigravity matter wind to form new stars elsewhere.





Example Supernova Remnants



GuitarNebulaThe Guitar Nebula appears to show that shape.  At the head of the guitar is a fast moving slow spinning neutron star, PSR 2224 + 65. (one source and another source).




© Copyright Tim E Simmons 2008 to 2016. Last updated 11th August 2016.Major changes are logged in AGM Change Log.